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Refractory For Electric Arc Furnace

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electric arc furnace refractory lining

The electric arc furnace is a type of steel making equipment that is heated by the thermal energy generated between the electrode end and the charge materials. The steel making in electric arc furnaces is a complex process that requires refractory lining to extend the service life of EAF.

The furnace body of the electric arc furnace is composed of the furnace cover, the furnace door, the steel taphole, and the furnace body, and the bottom and wall of the furnace are lined with basic or acid refractory products.

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Requirements of eAF refractory lining

High refractoriness

The general temperature of the steel making process is between 1500-1750℃, sometimes reaching 2000T. So, the EAF refractory lining should exhibit high refractoriness.

High load softening temperature

The process of steelmaking in an electric arc furnace is under high-temperature load conditions, and the furnace body also needs to be washed by molten steel, so the refractory must have a high load softening temperature.

Good thermal stability

The temperature from the original about 1600 ℃ suddenly dropped to below 900 ℃ when the finished steel is out and loaded. The refractories are required to have good thermal stability.

Good slag resistance

In the process of steelmaking, slag, furnace gas and liquid steel have strong chemical erosion on refractories, so refractories should have good slag resistance.

High compressive strength

The lining of the electric arc furnace is impacted by the charge during loading, the static pressure of the molten steel during smelting, the erosion of the steel flow during steel production, and the mechanical vibration during operation, so the refractory must have high compressive strength.

Low thermal conductivity

To reduce the heat loss of the electric furnace and reduce the electricity consumption, the low thermal conductivity of the refractory is required.

Suitable Refractory lining of electric arc furnace

Different refractory materials are used in different parts of the EAF since the differences of the heat load, contact effect with slag and molten steel, the degree of mechanical damage.

lining and structure of electric arc furnace

Furnace cover

Refractory materials for furnace covers mainly include silica brick, high alumina brick, and partially adopted monolithic refractory made from high alumina or corundum. The triangle area is usually applied with corundum or aluminum-chrome ramming mass.

Furnace side walls

Magnesia brick, dolomite brick, and maganesia-dolomite based ramming mass are the main choice for EAF furnace side walls. The walls of special steels smelted by ultra-high power and DC electric arc furnaces are constructed with magnesium-chrome bricks.

Slag line and hot spot

Magnesia carbon brick has a life circle of more than 300 times and is applied to the lining of slag and hot spot parts. The life of the furnace wall mainly depends on the damage degree of the hot spot. To balance the damage to the furnace wall and extend its life, the furnace wall is lined with water cooler or water cooler sleeve measures, and the surface is sprayed with a layer of refractory paint, and the slag is used to form a protective layer, which not only extends the life of the furnace wall, but also reduces the electrode consumption by 0.5kg/t, and the production cost is reduced by 5% to 10%.


The furnace bottom and the furnace slope constitute the melting pool, which is the place where the charging material and the liquid steel are collected. The bottom of the furnace is generally made of high-quality fused cast magnesia knotting lining. It is generally divided into two layers, the lower layer is built with magnesia brick or asphalt combined with magnesia brick, and the upper layer is made of magnesia or magnesia calcium iron ramming material. The working layer knotting material directly affects the life of the bottom of the furnace.


Tapholes on the side of the furnace often use high aluminum brick or ramming material, castable to make. Eccentric center tapholes are built with asphalt-impregnated and sintered magnesia brick, the tube is made of MgO-C brick, end part uses Al2O3-Sic-C brick or MgO-C brick.

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